Technical Explanation Document by Prof Jim Frame and Dr Tom Frame
Introduction: The use of cold plasma technology by OXONOX to eradicate all viruses, bacteria, fungi and biofilms to a much higher level than previously possible means that any ozone created in the plasma generating part of the process has to converted back to simple oxygen and any residual ozone has to be below exposure limits set out by the Health and Safety regulations Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH).
In this document we will discuss how this is achieved with real data validated by an independent testing organisation.
Cold Plasma Technology: For decades now with the limits of technology we have accepted that sterilisation, the process of making something free from bacteria or other living microorganisms, was dealt with by chemicals or other technologies claiming to eradicate 99.9% of all microorganisms.
There are literally trillions of microorganisms around us at all times, and millions on human fingernails alone, as an example.
99.9% eradication as we commonly see on advertising, described as Log3, will ‘leave’ around 1000 microorganisms per million after treatment with a product claiming up to 99.9% eradication. If one single bacterium can in seven hours produce over 2 million bacterial then what we consider as satisfactory at the moment, may well be leaving us at risk, especially during a pandemic, but also ongoing from flu, norovirus, common colds etc.
As so many of us are much more germ aware this lack of confidence in being protected could have a profound effect on the economy as we prefer to work from home, avoid crowded places or stop using transport.
OXONOX products, powered by ModuNOx-D plasma generators have extreme kill levels of typically at least 99.99% Log 4 to 99.999% Log 5 after just 60 seconds.
Why is this extreme kill rate important? The more extreme kill the better the protection and the longer the sterilisation effect. Also, the ability of microbes to develop resistant characteristics is reduced.
How does cold plasma from OXONOX work?
It uses the air around us as the raw material, supercharges it to create plasma to eradicate in the globally patented ModuNOx-D generator and then filters any by-products such as ozone so that only ultra-cleansed air is exhausted.
If cold plasma by OXONOX is more destructive than any other technology, how is it treated so only oxygen is exhausted, and ozone is at safe levels?
The uniqueness of the total OXONOX solution is that what previously would have taken a unit the size of a shipping container is now condensed into what is not much larger than a shoebox. Developments in the ModuNOx-D technology and the Filter/Containment process allow plasma to be generated in a very controlled and powerful way, treated in seconds to remove unwanted by-products safely.
Below is a layout of the system from the OXONOX AirStair product.
Ozone or nitric dioxide, depending on location, are produced as part of the chemical process of OXONOX products. In the UK it is ozone that the OXONOX units are set to.
When inhaled, ozone can damage the lungs. Relatively low amounts can cause chest pain, coughing, shortness of breath and throat irritation. Ozone may also worsen chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and compromise the ability of the body to fight respiratory infections.
It is therefore crucial that ozone, which is a major component in the extreme kill rate that OXONOX achieves, is dealt with in a controlled and safe manner.
OXONOX employ a sophisticated system of scrubbers, filters and enclosures at the filtration/containment part (5 on diagram) with the result of ultra-cleansed air being exhausted with extremely safe levels of ozone significantly below the Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs) set out in COSHH Regulations 2002.
In simple numbers how much ozone will be left over? And how is this validated?
As part of OXONOX undertaking Compliance with Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations OXONOX engaged Elements Materials Technology UK Limited to undertake testing under Regulation 10 ‘Air Monitoring’ of COSHH Regulations.
The background airborne concentration of ozone from the OXONOX unit was less than 0.014 mgm-3 (milligrams per cubic metre) against an Occupational Exposure Limit of 0.4mgm-3 and the comparative figures for Nitric dioxide were 0.072 mgm-3 against a limit of 0.96mgm-3.
Elements Materials Technology Environmental UK Limited: Workplace Air Monitoring
NOx Worldwide 25th August 2021
Josh Mills B.Sc. (Hons) AFOH
Chris Smith B.Sc. (Hons), CertOH, LFOH
21st September 2021
Report Comments: ‘Although these static location measurements are not personal exposure measurements and should not be directly compared with the Workplace Exposure Limits, the results of the monitoring did not indicate a cause for concern with respect to ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations resulting from the operation of the Plasma ozone treater’.
Summary: The use of cold plasma as a next generation sterilisation tool not only in the fight against the pandemic, but moving forward in sterilising hard to ventilate, crowded areas, with the additional effect of surface cleansing and deodorisation using just the air around us could be seen as the 1st major breakthrough for decades in this field.
Such powerful technology also has to be controlled so it can be used around humans safely.
OXONOX Plasma Solutions harness the power of plasma and control its by-products so that more effective sterilisation, especially in enclosed, unventilated spaces is now possible, safely.